Related Research

Created on Jul 25, 2014

Samuel Abramovich, Christian Schunn, and Ross Mitsuo Higashi. "Are Badges Useful in Education? It Depends Upon the Type of Badge and Expertise of Learner." Educational Technology Research and Development 61 (2013): 217–232. Available online at

Sheryl Grant and Kristan E. Shawgo. "Digital Badges: An Annotated Research Bibliography" (published 27 February 2013). Available online at

James E. Willis III. "Open Digital Badges: Design Principles Documentation Project (Open edX and Beyond)." Presentation to Badges: New Currency for Professional Credentials MOOC, 20 October 2014. Slide deck available online at: (meta-evaluation of MacArthur Foundation open badges initiative projects).